APPlication Service Provider. A company that sells access to APPlications, either to individuals or to other companies, in most cases this is also the ISP.
Typically a Fast Ethernet interconnection between computers, like Fileservers and APPlicationServers.
The amount of information that a network can carry, often measured in bits per second (bps). Typical network wiring range in bandwidth as follows: dialup modems (28.8 or 56 Kbps), ISDN (64 or 128 Kbps), DSL (roughly 640 Kbps - 6 Mbits), T 1 (l. 544 Mbps), Token Ring (4 or 16 Mbps), Ethernet (10, 100 or 1000 Mbps), T3 (45 Mbps), and FibreChannel (1 Gigabit equals 100Mbyte).
Most ThinClient technologies are optimized for the lower end of the spectrum (for dialup or Wide Area Networks) or the middle (for Local Area Networks).
Boot Protocol. An older network protocol for assigning IP Addresses to devices on a network (such as X terminals, routers, and printerservers). Most newer devices now use its successor, DHCP, instead.
Software that connects to remote Web servers and downloads information for presenting to the user. In a ThinClient environment, full-featured browsers for accessing the Internet are typically on servers like other graphical applications; slimmed-down "embedded" browsers are sometimes run on the ThinClient device itself (particularly with network computers) for accessing inforrnation stored within a company's intranet.
The terminal or computer device that is attached to the user's keyboard, monitor, and mouse. In a ThinClient environment, this device handles all input from and output to the user. Application processing is done on APPlicationServers located elsewhere in the network.
A type of network cabling most often used in Local Area Networks. It has several different form-factors, the most recent of which uses twisted pairs of phone wires running at 10 Mbps (called 10BaseT) or 100 Mbps (called 100BaseT) that have telephone-like modularjack connectors. Older formats typically use a round coaxial cable running at 10 Mbps (called "thin net" or 10Base2).
A version of Ethernet more forrnally called 100BaseT that uses twisted pair wires and runs at 100 Mbps often used as Backbone for computer interconnections.
The type of computing in which full applications are run (and often stored) on the user's computer or terminal. As applications grow, fat clients often have to be manually upgraded to add more memory, disk space, and new operating system versions.
Dedicated computer with UNIX, Linux, Novell or Windows Server 2003 Operating system.
Hypertext Markup Language. The language used in web pages for specifying text, graphics, input controls, and "hyperlinks" that browsers present to the user. Applications that just use HTML can typically be used from the widest range of web browsers.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol. HTTP is the network protocol used to transfer HTML web pages, graphics, and other data between a web server and a user's browser. A growing number of devices and software packages use HTTP to allow anybody with a web browser to query status information or set configuration data.
Software and network protocol from Citrix for delivering Architecture (ICA) graphics and audio to ThinClients from APPlicationServers equipped with either Microsoft's Windows Server 2003 and Citrix' MetaFramesoftware. It is similar in concept to Microsoft's RDP, but provides additional capabilities and integrates with Citrix' management tools.
With ICA, applications execute on MetaFrame-equipped servers located on a network. The user interface, keystrokes and mouse movements are sent over the network between the APPlicationServer and the Thinclient device. ICA is particularly optimized for use in low-bandwidth networks, such dialup phone lines and WANs.
Internet Protocol (IP)
The low-level format for messages sent between computers on the InterNet or on an IntraNet. Normally, IP is hidden from end users and applications, except for IP Addresses which identify individual computers on the network. Instead, IP messages are used as building blocks by the higher-level formats such as TCP/IP and UDP/IP.
A network or collection of networks within a company. Typically, the machines on an Intranet are only accessible to people within the company (in essence, a "private InterNet"). Networks within an IntraNet are often connected using routers.
Installation Management Services
The Citrix product to centrally manage many INTEL Multi Processor APPlicationServers, and take advantage to centrally update resources for all members of the ServerFarm.
A unique number that identifies a device on the InterNet. The number is made up of four groups of numbers ranging from 0 to 255, separaten by periods (e.g., 188.8.131.52). Typically, the first three of these numbers identifies the particular section of the network (called the IP Subnet) on which the device is attached. The fourth number identifies the particular device on that subnet.
A networked device obtains an IP Address either manually from the system administrator when the device is installed or automatically via the DHCP network service.
Applications and users rarely ever use IP Addresses directly; instead, they use easier-to-remember names, such as unisys.com. Applications translate these names into IP Addresses automatically with the help of special name servers on the network.
The smallest grouping of devices that are connected together on network, typically represented by the first three numbers within an IP Address. Subnets are the small towns of the network, connected together by highways known as routers. Collections of subnets within a company are sometimes called an IntraNet.
IP Subnet Mask
A number that indicates which parts of a device's IP Address represent the IP Subnet to which the device is attached. This number is either obtained automatically by the device from DHCP or must be manually entered by the system administrator. The most common subnet mask value is usually represented either in decimal as 255.255.255.0 or in hexadecimal as FF.FF.FF.00.
Integrated Services Digital Network. A type of network that provides simultaneous voice and high-speed data transmission through a single set of wires. lt is typically used for connecting Wide Area Networks and homes in certain areas.
Internet Service Provider. A company that sells access to the InterNet, either to individuals or to other companies.
A language developed by Sun that is used for InterNet software development (particularly Web pages) to create client/server applications. Small Java programs, called applets, are often stored on servers and then downloaded by clients whenever the software is used.
In a ThinClient environment, Java programs can also be run on the server just like any other application. Graphics are then sent over the network to the ThinClient device for display to the user.
A language for adding animation, special input controls, and data processing to Web pages. It resembles Java, but runs within the browser rather than within the Java Virtual Machine.
Java Virtual Machine
Software that interprets the instructions in Java applets. (JVM) The JVM is typically considered to be part of the operating system, but works closely with applications or systems that use Java as a way of extending themselves (such as browsers).
Just-In-Time Compiler. An enhancement to a Java Virtual Machine that automatically converts Java programs into native machine code as the programs run, allowing them to run much faster.
A ThinClient device that uses an Intel-Architecture microprocessor and which provides enhanced manageability of Intel's Wired for Management initiative.
Local Area Network (LAN)
A data communications network spanning a limited geographical area, usually within a single facility or campus.
Motion Pictures Experts Group. Formally, the standard committee that defines compression/decompression algorithms for handling digital video/audio. Informally, video data in the MPEG-1 format.
Network Computer (NC)
A ThinClient device that can access the Web via a browser and can run Java applets locally. Most network computers can also access Windows, UNIX, and legacy applications via connectivity software such as ICA, XWindows, and various terminal emulators.
Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP)
Software and network protocol from Microsoft for delivering graphics and audio to ThinClients from servers equipped with Microsoft's Windows NT Server 4. 0, Terminal Server Edition.
With RDP, applications execute on Windows NT APPlicationServers located on a network. The user interface, keystrokes and mouse movements are sent over the network between the server and the client device. RDP is particularly optimized for use in LANs but also works well in dialup phone lines and WANS.
Resource Management Services
The Citrix product to analyse APPlicationServers, and report, plan and update resources, including billing information.
A device that connects multiple networks together. Remote sites can be connected using routers over dedicated or switched lines to create WANs (Wide Area Networks).
A computer that is configured to provide services over a network to devices called clients. In a ThinClient environment, applications are run on servers, enabling the programs to take advantage of the servers' centrally managed and easily-updated resources.
Server based Computing
The Citrix computing method to support the modern ThinClient environments, applications are run on INTEL Multi Processor APPlicationServers, and take advantage of the servers' centrally managed and easily-updated resources for all ThinClients at once within the ServerFarm.
The Citrix method to „cluster“ many INTEL Multi Processor APPlicationServers, and take advantage the Installation Management Services to centrally managed and centrally updated resources for all members of the ServerFarm at once. The expression „cluster“ is not correct, but describes the bundling of Computing power at best, only OpenVMS is a real clustered system.
Simple Network Management Protocoi. A standard network protocol that enables devices to be remotely managed. A piece of software known an "SNMP Agent" is embedded in the device and provides access to systems administrators who use enterprise management tools running on servers. With SNMP, administrators can query the state of a ThinClient device, change its configuration, or even instruct it to shut itself down.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. A standard format for Internet Protocol messages that let pairs of computers reliably send streams of data to each other over IntraNets or the InterNet. It is typically used whenever applications are sending volumes of information or sequences of data that must arrive in order.
Software that enables terminal emulators to connect over networks to remote servers.
The type of computing in which just the user interface for applications is run on the user's computer or terminal, while the bulk of the application logic is stored and run on an APPlicationServer elsewhere in the network. As applications grow, only the server need be upgraded; the clients can remain untouched. This approach provides much increased control, security, and manageability of data and applications, while dramatically lower total cost of ownership.
A terminal, computer, or appliance that is designed specifically to run ThinClient software that present graphics, audio, and video to a user on behalf of applications running on servers located elsewhere in a network. Common examples include Windows-based Terminals, Network Computers, and X Terminals.
Software that runs on a PC or ThinClient device that provides access to applications running on servers located elsewhere in a network. Common examples include Microsoft's RDP, Citrix'ICA, X Windows emulators, and even legacy terminal emulators.
Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)
The ongoing costs associated with maintaining, managing, securing, supporting, growing, and upgrading an organization's information infrastructure (including hardware, software, services, and people). Containing these costs is a major challenge for today's business and is has a direct impact on the success or failure of many companies.
Wide Area Network (WAN)
A data network typically extending a LAN outside a building or beyond a campus, over third-party lines to link to other LANs at remote sites. Typically created by using bridges or routers to connect geographically separaten LANS.
Windows-based Terminal (WBT)
A terminal running Windows CE that displays graphics from applications running on servers elsewhere in a network. WBTs connect to Windows NT using either Microsoft's RDP or Citrix' ICA. They can also connect to legacy systems through terminal emulators.
The embedded operating system used in Windows-based Terminals. Windows CE enables WBTs to take advantage of software developed for both Windows PCs as well as Hand-held PCs. It is also the only OS that can be used with Microsoft's RDP for connecting to Windows NT Server 4. 0, Terminal Server Edition.